In Queensland, coal-seam gas supplies about 90 per cent of the state's natural gas and fuels about 15 per cent of the state's electricity generation.
Queensland's CSG industry is set to create 20,000 jobs each year for the next 20 years and deliver an increase in Australia's gross domestic product of up to $516 billion.
Fracking has been used by the resources sector for more than 60 years internationally, and 40 years in Australia, to improve the flow of natural gas.
If a CSG well requires fracking, a gel is used to help natural gas flow to the surface. Fracking gel is 99 per cent sand and water with the remaining 1 per cent containing common additives. Toxic chemicals such as BTEX are banned from use in gel here.
It is estimated the CSG industry will extract 75,000 megalitres of water a year from the Surat Basin area of the Great Artesian Basin, or 0.0002 per cent of total water resources. This is much less than the 620,000 megalitres used each year by other industries, including agriculture.
Stringent codes govern how CSG wells are constructed. This includes requiring them to be encased in steel and cement. In addition, the millions of tonnes of impermeable rock typically found between coal seams and aquifers act as a natural barrier.
Greenhouse gas emissions from all stages of CSG production represent about 0.3 per cent of Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Livestock in Australia accounts for 12 per cent of emissions.